A 13 year follow up study has found higher vitamin D levels in middle age may determine improvements in cognitive outcomes later in life. This positive association applied only to participants with low educational levels. Cognitive reserve, the idea used to explain why the same degrees of neuropathology or brain damage affects some people and not others, was used as the explanation of these study results.
Over 1000 individuals who participated in the French “Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants” study were reviewed for this current study 13 years later. Cognitive performance was taken by trained neuropsychologists. A variety of tests were performed. Because cognitive performance was not performed at the beginning of the original study it was not possible to track cognitive decline.
Findings showed among participants with a secondary education only, there was no association between any cognitive variables and vitamin D levels. The only exception to this was phonemic fluency. In this area better outcomes were seen in participants with higher vitamin D levels. Individuals with a low education showed that their vitamin D levels were most strongly associated with the performance of working memory. This reinforces previous results of other meta analysis.
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